Cytokines and innate inflammation in the pathogenesis of human traumatic brain injury

Adel Helmy, Maria Grazia De Simoni, Mathew R. Guilfoyle, Keri L H Carpenter, Peter J. Hutchinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is an increasing recognition that following traumatic brain injury, a cascade of inflammatory mediators is produced, and contributes to the pathological consequences of central nervous system injury. This review summarises the key literature from pre-clinical models that underlies our understanding of innate inflammation following traumatic brain injury before focussing on the growing evidence from human studies. In addition, the underlying molecular mediators responsible for blood brain barrier dysfunction have been discussed. In particular, we have highlighted the different sampling methodologies available and the difficulties in interpreting human data of this sort. Ultimately, understanding the innate inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury may provide a therapeutic avenue in the treatment of central nervous system disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352-372
Number of pages21
JournalProgress in Neurobiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


  • Blood brain barrier
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Microdialysis
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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