Three thousand two hundred and ninety-eight patients admitted to our Stroke Unit with hemorrhagic, large artery atherosclerosis, cardioembolic, small-vessel occlusion, and undetermined etiology-cryptogenic strokes were included in the study. The circadian variability in onset in each stroke subgroup and the associations with various risk factors were analyzed. In each subgroup, a significant minority of patients suffered from stroke during sleep. In the ischemic group, hypercholesterolemia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, and previous myocardial infarction facilitated the onset during waking. During waking, stroke onset was significantly higher in the morning compared to the afternoon both in the hemorrhagic and in the ischemic type. In hemorrhagic stroke, a previous stroke was associated with a lower early morning occurrence. In large artery atherosclerosis stroke, males were at higher risk of early morning occurrence (p<0.01). In small-vessel occlusion stroke, hypertension is significantly more present in the morning compared to the afternoon onset (p<0.005). Circadian patterns of stroke onset were observed both in hemorrhagic and in ischemic stroke, irrespective of the ischemic subgroup. In all groups, stroke was more likely to occur during waking than during sleep and, in the diurnal period, during morning than during afternoon. Moreover, sex and some clinical factors influence the diurnal pattern.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology