The posterior hypothalamus is being considered a valid target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias in selected patients. Its main afferent structures include: amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei, orbital cortex and retina. Its main efferent structures include: anterior nucleus of the thalamus, overall cerebral cortex through histaminergic projections, amygdala, hippocampus, septal nuclei and midbrain reticular formation. Such connections are thought to be the key issue in the therapeutic efficacy of its high-frequency stimulation.
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