Defining genetic risk factors for scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease: IRF5 and STAT4 gene variants are associated with scleroderma while STAT4 is protective against scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease

Carmel J W Stock, Angelo De Lauretis, Dina Visca, Cecile Daccord, Maria Kokosi, Vasilis Kouranos, George Margaritopoulos, Peter M George, Philip L Molyneaux, Svetlana Nihtyanova, Felix Chua, Toby M Maher, Voon Ong, David J Abraham, Christopher P Denton, Athol U Wells, Louise V Wain, Elisabetta A Renzoni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Although several genetic associations with scleroderma (SSc) are defined, very little is known on genetic susceptibility to SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). A number of common polymorphisms have been associated with SSc-ILD, but most have not been replicated in separate populations. Four SNPs in IRF5, and one in each of STAT4, CD226 and IRAK1, selected as having been previously the most consistently associated with SSc-ILD, were genotyped in 612 SSc patients, of European descent, of whom 394 had ILD. The control population (n = 503) comprised individuals of European descent from the 1000 Genomes Project. After Bonferroni correction, two of the IRF5 SNPs, rs2004640 (OR (95% CI)1.30 (1.10-1.54), pcorr = 0.015) and rs10488631 (OR 1.48 (1.14-1.92), pcorr = 0.022), and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865 (OR 1.43 (1.18-1.73), pcorr = 0.0015) were significantly associated with SSc compared with controls. However, none of the SNPs were significantly different between patients with SSc-ILD and controls. Two SNPs in IRF5, rs10488631 (OR 1.72 (1.24-2.39), pcorr = 0.0098), and rs2004640 (OR 1.39 (1.11-1.75), pcorr = 0.03), showed a significant difference in allele frequency between controls and patients without ILD, as did STAT4 rs7574865 (OR 1.86 (1.45-2.38), pcorr = 6.6 × 10-6). A significant difference between SSc with and without ILD was only observed for STAT4 rs7574865, being less frequent in patients with ILD (OR 0.66 (0.51-0.85), pcorr = 0.0084). In conclusion, IRF5 rs2004640 and rs10488631, and STAT4 rs7574865 were significantly associated with SSc as a whole. Only STAT4 rs7574865 showed a significant difference in allele frequency in SSc-ILD, with the T allele being protective against ILD.Key points• We confirm the associations of the IRF5 SNPs rs2004640 and rs10488631, and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865, with SSc as a whole.• None of the tested SNPs were risk factors for SSc-ILD specifically.• The STAT4 rs7574865 T allele was protective against the development of lung fibrosis in SSc patients.• Further work is required to understand the genetic basis of lung fibrosis in association with scleroderma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1173-1179
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Rheumatology
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alleles
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Interferon Regulatory Factors/genetics
  • Logistic Models
  • London
  • Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Risk Factors
  • STAT4 Transcription Factor/genetics
  • Scleroderma, Systemic/complications
  • Young Adult

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