Definition, type, frequency and prognostic impact of anaemia in chronic heart failure

Stefan D. Anker, Wolfram Steinborn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whilst anaemia is known to cause heart failure, CHF may also frequently cause anaemia. There is a positive correlation between the severity of heart failure and the prevalence and severity of anaemia in CHF. The presence of anaemia in CHF independently predicts increased mortality in HF. There are many potential reasons for the development of anaemia in CHF but most of the anaemia seen in CHF is the "anaemia of chronic illness". This review will discuss the prevalence of anaemia in CHF, its causes, and its prognostic importance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)217-220
Number of pages4
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure, Supplement
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2003



  • Anaemia
  • Chronic heart failure
  • Mortality
  • Pathophysiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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