Delayed HIV diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy: Inequalities by educational level, COHERE in EuroCoord

Robert Zangerle, Giota Touloumi, Josiane Warszawski, Laurence Meyer, François Dabis, Murielle Mary Krause, Jade Ghosn, Catherine Leport, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand Wit, Maria Prins, Heiner Bucher, Caroline Sabin, Diana Gibb, Gerd Fätkenheuer, Julia Del Amo, Niels Obel, Claire Thorne, Amanda Mocroft, Ole KirkChristoph Stephan, Santiago Pérez-Hoyos, Osamah Hamouda, Barbara Bartmeyer, Antoni Noguera-Julian, Andrea Antinori, Antonella D'Arminio-Monforte, Norbert Brockmeyer, Josè Ramos, Pablo Rojo Conejo, Toni Soriano, Manuel Battegay, Andri Rauch, Cristina Mussini, Pat Tookey, Jordi Casabona, Jose M. Mirò, Antonella Castagna, Deborah Konopnick, Tessa Goetghebuer, Carlo Torti, Ramon Teira, Myriam Garrido, David Haerry, Stéphane De Wit, Dominique Costagliola, Jesper Grarup, Genevieve Chêne, Paediatric Cohort, Ali Judd, Julia Bohlius, Vincent Bouteloup, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Maria Dorrucci, Matthias Egger, Frederik Engsig, Hansjakob Furrer, Olivier Lambotte, Sara Lodi, Sophie Matheron, Susana Monge, Fumiyo Nakagawa, Roger Paredes, Andrew Phillips, Massimo Puoti, Colette Smit, Jonathan Sterne, Rodolphe Thiebaut, Marc Van Der Valk, Linda Wittkop, Natasha Wyss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: In Europe and elsewhere, health inequalities among HIV-positive individuals are of concern. We investigated late HIV diagnosis and late initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) by educational level, a proxy of socioeconomic position. Design and methods: We used data from nine HIV cohorts within COHERE in Austria, France, Greece, Italy, Spain and Switzerland, collecting data on level of education in categories of the UNESCO/International Standard Classification of Education standard classification: non-completed basic, basic, secondary and tertiary education. We included individuals diagnosed with HIV between 1996 and 2011, aged at least 16 years, with known educational level and at least one CD4 cell count within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. We examined trends by education level in presentation with advanced HIV disease (AHD) (CD4

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2297-2306
Number of pages10
JournalAIDS (London, England)
Issue number15
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Education
  • Hiv
  • Late diagnosis
  • Socioeconomic inequities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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