Objective: International Guidelines provide a standardised approach to newborn resuscitation in the DR and, in their most recent versions, recommendations dedicated to management of ELBWI were progressively increased. It is expected that introduction in clinical practice and dissemination of the most recent evidence should be more consistent in academic than in non-academic hospitals. The aim of the study was to compare adherence to the International Guidelines and consistency of practice in delivery room management of extremely low birth weight infants between academic and non-academic institutions.Methods: A questionnaire was sent to the directors of all Italian level III centres between April and August 2012.Results: There was a 92% (n = 98/107) response rate. Apart from polyethylene wrapping to optimise thermal control, perinatal management approach was comparable between academic and non-academic centres.Conclusions: There were minor differences in management of extremely low birth weight infants between Italian academic and non-academic institutions, apart from thermal management. Although there was a good, overall adherence to the International Guidelines for Neonatal Resuscitation, temperature management was not in accordance with official recommendations and every effort has to be done to improve this aspect. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.