OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the dentoskeletal changes associated with long-term and continuous mandibular advancement device (MAD) use in sleep-related breathing disorder patients.
METHODS: Cephalometric measurements and three-dimensional model analysis were performed at baseline and after 3.5 ± 1.1 years in 20 snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea patients treated with the Silensor® appliance. Intra-group differences were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. A regression analysis was performed for variables that showed a statistically significant difference between time points to evaluate the influence of treatment time and patient's initial characteristics on their variations. The statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.
RESULTS: At cephalometric assessment, the maxilla revealed a significant decrease in horizontal position (SNA: -0.4 ± 0.72 degree, P = 0.021) and a significant retroclination of the upper incisor (-1.59 ± 1.07 degree, P < 0.001), while the mandible displayed a significant downward rotation (0.88 ± 1.28 degree, P = 0.006) and a proclination of the lower incisor (2.27 ± 1.38 degree, P < 0.001). Model analysis showed a decrease in upper total space discrepancy (-0.66 ± 0.72 mm, P < 0.002), overjet (OJ; -0.34 ± 0.47 mm, P < 0.011), and overbite (-0.4 ± 0.52 mm, P < 0.004). In the regression analysis, treatment time influenced the lower incisor inclination (Beta = -0.713, P = 0.018) and OJ (Beta = -0.218, P = 0.018); patients' initial characteristics had an effect on OJ (Beta = -0.195, P = 0.011).
LIMITATIONS: A larger sample size could increase the generalizability of the findings.
CONCLUSION: MAD wear after a mean of 3.5 years determines statistically significant but clinically irrelevant dentoskeletal changes. Their potential occurrence should be thoroughly discussed with patients; regular follow-up visits by a specialist experienced in dental sleep medicine are also mandatory during treatment in addition to polysomnographic examinations.
- Journal Article