Depressive symptoms of Alzheimer caregivers are mainly due to personal rather than patient factors

Orazio Zanetti, Giovanni B. Frisoni, Angelo Bianchetti, Giancarlo Tamanza, Vittorio Cigoli, Marco Trabucchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

91 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives. To investigate the predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms in a sample of community-dwelling Alzheimer's patients. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Alzheimer's unit specifically devoted to the care of demented patients in Brescia Province (Italy). One hundred and three dyads were consecutively recruited between July 1994 and July 1995. Caregivers were sons/daughters (65%) or husbands/wives; mean age was 54.6 ± 13.2. Alzheimer's patients Mini Mental State Examination score was 11.3 ± 8.3; patients were equally distributed among disease severity levels. The following variables have been collected: (a) background and context variables (caregiver's age, gender, marital status, education, relationship and cohabitation with the patient, employment status, satisfaction with household income); (b) caregiver's personal resources (health, social relationships and social interactions, formal supports use, and self-rated adequacy of performance as caregivers); (c) objective burden indicators (number of daily hours for assistance and vigilance); (d) primary stressors (patient's age and gender, cognitive status, functional status, frequency of behavioural disturbances). Caregiver's depressive symptoms represented the main outcome measure. Results. Being husband or wife, low self-rated health and caregiving competence, high numbers of hours for assistance and patient's behavioural disturbances and younger age were associated with caregiver's depressive symptoms. With multivariate analysis only relationship to the patient, caregiver's health and competence were independent predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Factors related to the caregiver-relationship, health and competence-rather than to the patient constitute the main risk factors for caregiver's depressive symptomatology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-367
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume13
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1998

Fingerprint

Caregivers
Depression
Spouses
Mental Competency
Nuclear Family
Health
Independent Living
Health Resources
Mentally Ill Persons
Marital Status
Interpersonal Relations
Italy
Patient Care
Multivariate Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Education

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's dementia
  • Caregiver
  • Depression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Depressive symptoms of Alzheimer caregivers are mainly due to personal rather than patient factors. / Zanetti, Orazio; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bianchetti, Angelo; Tamanza, Giancarlo; Cigoli, Vittorio; Trabucchi, Marco.

In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 13, No. 6, 06.1998, p. 358-367.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zanetti, Orazio ; Frisoni, Giovanni B. ; Bianchetti, Angelo ; Tamanza, Giancarlo ; Cigoli, Vittorio ; Trabucchi, Marco. / Depressive symptoms of Alzheimer caregivers are mainly due to personal rather than patient factors. In: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 1998 ; Vol. 13, No. 6. pp. 358-367.
@article{6de4d855b4a047de8783746014cca6ab,
title = "Depressive symptoms of Alzheimer caregivers are mainly due to personal rather than patient factors",
abstract = "Objectives. To investigate the predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms in a sample of community-dwelling Alzheimer's patients. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Alzheimer's unit specifically devoted to the care of demented patients in Brescia Province (Italy). One hundred and three dyads were consecutively recruited between July 1994 and July 1995. Caregivers were sons/daughters (65{\%}) or husbands/wives; mean age was 54.6 ± 13.2. Alzheimer's patients Mini Mental State Examination score was 11.3 ± 8.3; patients were equally distributed among disease severity levels. The following variables have been collected: (a) background and context variables (caregiver's age, gender, marital status, education, relationship and cohabitation with the patient, employment status, satisfaction with household income); (b) caregiver's personal resources (health, social relationships and social interactions, formal supports use, and self-rated adequacy of performance as caregivers); (c) objective burden indicators (number of daily hours for assistance and vigilance); (d) primary stressors (patient's age and gender, cognitive status, functional status, frequency of behavioural disturbances). Caregiver's depressive symptoms represented the main outcome measure. Results. Being husband or wife, low self-rated health and caregiving competence, high numbers of hours for assistance and patient's behavioural disturbances and younger age were associated with caregiver's depressive symptoms. With multivariate analysis only relationship to the patient, caregiver's health and competence were independent predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Factors related to the caregiver-relationship, health and competence-rather than to the patient constitute the main risk factors for caregiver's depressive symptomatology.",
keywords = "Alzheimer's dementia, Caregiver, Depression",
author = "Orazio Zanetti and Frisoni, {Giovanni B.} and Angelo Bianchetti and Giancarlo Tamanza and Vittorio Cigoli and Marco Trabucchi",
year = "1998",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199806)13:6<358::AID-GPS772>3.0.CO;2-J",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "358--367",
journal = "International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry",
issn = "0885-6230",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Ltd",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Depressive symptoms of Alzheimer caregivers are mainly due to personal rather than patient factors

AU - Zanetti, Orazio

AU - Frisoni, Giovanni B.

AU - Bianchetti, Angelo

AU - Tamanza, Giancarlo

AU - Cigoli, Vittorio

AU - Trabucchi, Marco

PY - 1998/6

Y1 - 1998/6

N2 - Objectives. To investigate the predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms in a sample of community-dwelling Alzheimer's patients. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Alzheimer's unit specifically devoted to the care of demented patients in Brescia Province (Italy). One hundred and three dyads were consecutively recruited between July 1994 and July 1995. Caregivers were sons/daughters (65%) or husbands/wives; mean age was 54.6 ± 13.2. Alzheimer's patients Mini Mental State Examination score was 11.3 ± 8.3; patients were equally distributed among disease severity levels. The following variables have been collected: (a) background and context variables (caregiver's age, gender, marital status, education, relationship and cohabitation with the patient, employment status, satisfaction with household income); (b) caregiver's personal resources (health, social relationships and social interactions, formal supports use, and self-rated adequacy of performance as caregivers); (c) objective burden indicators (number of daily hours for assistance and vigilance); (d) primary stressors (patient's age and gender, cognitive status, functional status, frequency of behavioural disturbances). Caregiver's depressive symptoms represented the main outcome measure. Results. Being husband or wife, low self-rated health and caregiving competence, high numbers of hours for assistance and patient's behavioural disturbances and younger age were associated with caregiver's depressive symptoms. With multivariate analysis only relationship to the patient, caregiver's health and competence were independent predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Factors related to the caregiver-relationship, health and competence-rather than to the patient constitute the main risk factors for caregiver's depressive symptomatology.

AB - Objectives. To investigate the predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms in a sample of community-dwelling Alzheimer's patients. Design. A cross-sectional study was conducted in an Alzheimer's unit specifically devoted to the care of demented patients in Brescia Province (Italy). One hundred and three dyads were consecutively recruited between July 1994 and July 1995. Caregivers were sons/daughters (65%) or husbands/wives; mean age was 54.6 ± 13.2. Alzheimer's patients Mini Mental State Examination score was 11.3 ± 8.3; patients were equally distributed among disease severity levels. The following variables have been collected: (a) background and context variables (caregiver's age, gender, marital status, education, relationship and cohabitation with the patient, employment status, satisfaction with household income); (b) caregiver's personal resources (health, social relationships and social interactions, formal supports use, and self-rated adequacy of performance as caregivers); (c) objective burden indicators (number of daily hours for assistance and vigilance); (d) primary stressors (patient's age and gender, cognitive status, functional status, frequency of behavioural disturbances). Caregiver's depressive symptoms represented the main outcome measure. Results. Being husband or wife, low self-rated health and caregiving competence, high numbers of hours for assistance and patient's behavioural disturbances and younger age were associated with caregiver's depressive symptoms. With multivariate analysis only relationship to the patient, caregiver's health and competence were independent predictors of caregiver's depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Factors related to the caregiver-relationship, health and competence-rather than to the patient constitute the main risk factors for caregiver's depressive symptomatology.

KW - Alzheimer's dementia

KW - Caregiver

KW - Depression

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031839997&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031839997&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199806)13:6<358::AID-GPS772>3.0.CO;2-J

DO - 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1166(199806)13:6<358::AID-GPS772>3.0.CO;2-J

M3 - Article

VL - 13

SP - 358

EP - 367

JO - International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

JF - International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry

SN - 0885-6230

IS - 6

ER -