Design of an innovative methodology for cerebrospinal fluid analysis: Preliminary results

Tommaso Schirinzi, Alberto Cordella, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Arnaldo D’amico, Andrea Palombi, Alessandro Zompanti, Simone Grasso, Giorgio Pennazza, Marco Santonico

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis supports diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), however a number of issues limits its potentialities in clinical practice. Here, a newly devel-oped technique for fluid voltammetry, relying on a simple sensor (BIOsensor-based multisensorial system for mimicking Nose, Tongue and Eyes, BIONOTE), was used to test the applicability for CSF analysis. BIONOTE was initially calibrated on an artificial CSF-like solution and then applied on human CSF, either immediately after collection or after refrigerated storage. Following optimiza-tion, it was used to evaluate 11 CSF samples correlating the electrochemical dataset with CSF routine parameters and biomarkers of neurodegeneration. Multivariate data analysis was performed for model elaboration and calibration using principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis. BIONOTE presented a high capacity to predict both physiological and patho-logical constituents of artificial CSF. It differentiated distinct fresh human CSF samples well but lost accuracy after refrigerated storage. The electrochemical analysis-derived data correlated with either CSF routine cytochemical indexes or a biomarker of neurodegeneration. BIONOTE resulted as be-ing a reliable system for electrochemical analysis of CSF. The CSF fingerprint provided by the sensor has shown itself to be sensitive to CSF modification, thus it is potentially representative of CSF al-teration. This result opens the way to its testing in further study addressed at assessing the clinical relevance of the methodology. Because of its advantages due to the ease and rapidity of the meth-odology, a validation study is now required to translate the technique into clinical practice and improve diagnostic workup of NDs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3767
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2021


  • Biomarkers
  • CSF
  • Electrochemical analysis
  • Neurodegenerative diseases
  • Voltammetry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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