Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved into an outstandingly versatile diagnostic modality, as it has the ability to non-invasively produce detailed information on a tissue’s structure and function. Complementary data is normally obtained in separate measurements, either as contrast-weighted images, which are fast and simple to acquire, or as quantitative parametric maps, which offer an absolute quantification of underlying biophysical effects, such as relaxation times or flow. Here, we demonstrate how to acquire and reconstruct data in a transient-state with a dual purpose: 1 – to generate contrast-weighted images that can be adjusted to emphasise clinically relevant image biomarkers; exemplified with signal modulation according to flow to obtain angiography information, and 2 – to simultaneously infer multiple quantitative parameters with a single, highly accelerated acquisition. This is achieved by introducing three novel elements: a model that accounts for flowing blood, a method for sequence design using smooth flip angle excitation patterns that incorporates both parameter encoding and signal contrast, and the reconstruction of temporally resolved contrast-weighted images. From these images we simultaneously obtain angiography projections and multiple quantitative maps. By doing so, we increase the amount of clinically relevant data without adding measurement time, creating new dimensions for biomarker exploration and adding value to MR examinations for patients and clinicians alike.
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