Background: Desmoid tumor, also known as aggressive fibromatosis, is a rare soft tissue tumor. For those cases localized in the anterior abdominal wall, radical resection and reconstruction with a mesh is indicated. Because the rarity of the disease, randomized trials are lacking, but in reported retrospective series, it is clear that although it is considered a benign lesion, local recurrence is not uncommon. Methods: We analyzed the records of 14 consecutive patients (3 men, 11 women, mean age 36 years, range 25-51 years) with desmoid tumor of the anterior abdominal wall treated at the European Institute of Oncology. The surgical strategy was the same in all cases: wide surgical excision and immediate plastic reconstruction with mesh after intraoperative confirmation by frozen sections of disease-free margins of >1 cm. We considered long-term outcomes by using the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 as an instrument to evaluate the overall quality of the treatment delivered to these patients. Results: No immediate postoperative complication was registered, and no patient developed recurrence after a median follow-up period of 55 months. Two women experienced mesh bulging within 1 year after the operation. The long-term mean global health status registered was 97 out of 100. Conclusions: Radical resection aided by intraoperative margin evaluation via frozen sections followed by immediate mesh reconstruction is a safe procedure and can provide definitive cure without functional limitations for patients with desmoid tumors of the anterior abdominal wall.
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