Detection and compensation of organ/lesion motion using 4D-PET/CT respiratory gated acquisition techniques

Valentino Bettinardi, Maria Picchio, Nadia Di Muzio, Luigi Gianolli, Maria Carla Gilardi, Cristina Messa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To describe the degradation effects produced by respiratory organ and lesion motion on PET/CT images and to define the role of respiratory gated (RG) 4D-PET/CT techniques to compensate for such effects. Methods: Based on the literature and on our own experience, technical recommendations and clinical indications for the use of RG 4D PET/CT have been outlined. Results: RG 4D-PET/CT techniques require a state of the art PET/CT scanner, a respiratory monitoring system and dedicated acquisition and processing protocols. Patient training is particularly important to obtain a regular breathing pattern. An adequate number of phases has to be selected to balance motion compensation and statistical noise. RG 4D PET/CT motion free images may be clinically useful for tumour tissue characterization, monitoring patient treatment and target definition in radiation therapy planning. Conclusions: RG 4D PET/CT is a valuable tool to improve image quality and quantitative accuracy and to assess and measure organ and lesion motion for radiotherapy planning.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-316
Number of pages6
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2010


  • Radiotherapy
  • Respiratory gated 4D-PET/CT
  • Respiratory organ motion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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