A survey was carried out From August to November 2002 to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal Escherichia coli isolates from 3,208 healthy children from four different urban areas of Latin America, two in Bolivia (Camiri and Villa Montes) and two in Peru (Yurimaguas and Moyobamba). Ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli isolates were detected in four children, one from each of the areas sampled. The isolates exhibited a multidrug-resistant phenotype, including resistance to oxyimino-cephalosporins and aztreonam, and the MICs of ceftazidime for the isolates were lower than those of cefotaxime. By PCR and sequencing, the blaCTX-M-2 determinant was detected in three isolates and the blaCTX-M-15 determinant was detected in one isolate (from Peru). The CTX-M-2-producing isolates belonged to three different phylogenetic groups (groups A, B2, and D), while the CTX-M-15-producing isolate belonged to phylogenetic group D. The blaCTX-M-2 determinants were transferable to E. coli by conjugation, while conjugative transfer of the blaCTX-M-2 determinant was not detectable. Plasmids harboring the blaCTX-M-2 determinant exhibited similar restriction profiles, and in all of them the gene was located on a 2.2-kb PstI fragment, suggesting a genetic environment similar to that present in In35 and InS21. The findings of the present study confirm the widespread distribution of CTX-M-type β-lactamases and underscore the role that commensal E. coli isolates could play as a potential reservoir of these clinically relevant resistance determinants. This is the first report of CTX-M-type enzymes in Bolivia and Peru and also the first report of the detection of CTX-M-15 in Latin America.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)