Giant Cell Tumor (GCT) represents about 20% of benign bone tumors, is locally aggressive although malignant transformation is extremely rare, <1% of cases but 2-3% give pulmonary metastasis. Age at onset is between 20 and 40 years with a slight predominance for the female gender. GCT is characterized by specific mutations in H3F3A gene encoding the protein histone 3.3. The study of these mutations is important for the differential diagnosis with giant cell rich sarcomas, chondroblastoma and aneurysmal bone cyst. To identify the most frequent H3F3A mutations we developed a novel allele specific Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method, based on Allele Specific Locked Nucleic Acid (ASLNAqPCR) that is here described. Molecular analyses were performed on 20 GCT and 2 osteosarcoma arising on a previous GCT. All cases were verified by Sanger sequencing. We demonstrated that ASLNAqPCR is a quick, sensitive and reliable method to identify mutations of the H3F3A gene, in giant cell tumor of bone, to support diagnosis in morphologically ambiguous cases.
- Allele specific locked nucleic acid quantitative PCR
- Giant cell tumor
- H3F3A gene