Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus at chromosome 14q32 represent a common mechanism of oncogene activation in lymphoid malignancies. In multiple myeloma (MM), variable chromosome partners have been identified by conventional cytogenetics, including the 11q13, 8q24, 18q21, and 6p21 loci. We and others have recently reported a novel, karyotypically undetectable chromosomal translocation t(4;14)(p16.3;q32) in MM-derived cell lines, as well as in primary tumors. The 4p16.3 breakpoints are relatively scattered and located less than 100 kb centromeric of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene or within the recently identified WHSC1 gene, both of which are apparently deregulated by the translocation. To assess the frequency of the t(4;14)(p16.3; q32) translocation in MM, we performed a double-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of interphase nuclei with differently labeled probes specific for the IGH locus (a pool of plasmid clones specific for the IGH constant regions) or 4p16.3 (yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 764-H1 spanning the region involved in breakpoints). Thirty MM patients, the MM- derived cell lines KMS-11 and OPM2, and six normal controls were examined. The identification of a t(4;14) translocation, evaluated as the presence of a der(14) chromosome, was based on the colocalization of signals specific for the two probes; a cutoff value of 15% (mean + 3 standard deviation [SD]) derived from the interphase FISH of the normal controls (range, 5% to 11%; mean ± SD, 8.16 ± 2.2) was used for the quantification analysis. In interphase FISH, five patients (one in clinical stage I, two in stage II, one in stage III, and a plasma cell leukemia) were found to be positive (≃ 15%). FISH metaphases with split or colocalized signals were detected in only two of the translocated cases and confirmed the pattern found in the interphase nuclei. Furthermore, in three of the five cases with the translocation, FISH analysis with the IGH joining probe (JH) showed the presence of the reciprocal product of the translocation [der(4) chromosome]. Overall, our study indicates that the t(4;14)(p16.3;q32) chromosomal translocation is a recurrent event in MM tumors and may contribute towards the detection of this lesion and our understanding of its pathogenetic and clinical implications in MM.
|Number of pages||9|
|Publication status||Published - Jul 15 1999|
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