Determination of monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle ligand-shell morphology using NMR

Xiang Liu, Miao Yu, Hyewon Kim, Marta Mameli, Francesco Stellacci

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


It is accepted that the ligand shell morphology of nanoparticles coated with a monolayer of molecules can be partly responsible for important properties such as cell membrane penetration and wetting. When binary mixtures of molecules coat a nanoparticle, they can arrange randomly or separate into domains, for example, forming Janus, patchy or striped particles. To date, there is no straightforward method for the determination of such structures. Here we show that a combination of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR can be used to determine the ligand shell structure of a series of particles covered with aliphatic and aromatic ligands of varying composition. This approach is a powerful way to determine the ligand shell structure of patchy particles; it has the limitation of needing a whole series of compositions and ligands' combinations with NMR peaks well separated and whose shifts due to the surrounding environment can be large enough.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1182
JournalNature Communications
Publication statusPublished - 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

Cite this