Development and conceptual validation of a questionnaire to help contraceptive choice: CHLOE (Contraception: HeLping for wOmen’s choicE)

Christian Georges Jamin, Gunther Häusler, Paloma Lobo Abascal, Christian Fiala, Luis Ignacio Lete Lasa, Rossella Elena Nappi, Marie Christine Micheletti, Ana Fernández-Dorado, Axelle Pintiaux, Natalie Chabbert-Buffet

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Objective: The aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to facilitate choice of the most appropriate contraceptive method for individual women. Methods: A literature review was conducted to identify key aspects influencing contraceptive choice and inform development of a questionnaire for online completion. Questionnaire development was overseen by a steering committee consisting of eight gynaecologists from across Europe. The initial draft underwent conceptual validation through cognitive debriefing interviews with six native English-speaking women. A qualitative content analysis was conducted to accurately identify potential issues and areas for questionnaire improvement. A revised version of the questionnaire then underwent face-to-face and online evaluation by 115 international gynaecologists/obstetricians with expertise in contraception, prior to development of a final version. Results: The final conceptually validated Contraception: HeLping for wOmen’s choicE (CHLOE) questionnaire takes ≤10 min to complete and includes three sections to elicit general information about the individual, the health conditions that might influence contraceptive choice, and the woman’s needs and preferences that might influence contraceptive choice. The questionnaire captures the core aspects of personalisation, efficacy and safety, identified as key attributes influencing contraceptive choice, and consists of 24 closed-ended questions for online completion prior to a health care provider (HCP) consultation. The HCP receives a summary of the responses. Conclusion: The CHLOE questionnaire has been developed to help women choose the contraception that best suits their needs and situation while optimising the HCP’s time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)286-290
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Contraception and Reproductive Health Care
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 4 2017


  • Birth control
  • CHLOE (Contraception: HeLping for wOmen’s choicE) questionnaire
  • contraception
  • decision aid
  • decision support tool

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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