Development and initial validation of the cardiovascular disease acceptance and action questionnaire (CVD-AAQ) in an italian sample of cardiac patients

Chiara A M Spatola, Emanuele A M Cappella, Christina L. Goodwin, Matteo Baruffi, Gabriella Malfatto, Mario Facchini, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Enrico Molinari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Psychological inflexibility refers to the attempt to decrease internal distress even when doing so is inconsistent with life values, and has been identified as a potential barrier to making and maintaining health behavior changes that are consistent with a heart-healthy lifestyle. Disease- and behavior-specific measures of psychological inflexibility have been developed and utilized in treatment research. However, no specific measure has been created for patients with heart disease. Thus, the CardioVascular Disease Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (CVD-AAQ) was developed. The present study is aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the CVD-AAQ and to explore its association with measures of psychological adjustment and cardiovascular risk factors in an Italian sample of 275 cardiac patients. Exploratory factor analysis showed a structural one-factor solution with satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The relation with other measures was in the expected direction with stronger correlations for the theoretically consistent variables, supporting convergent and divergent validity. CVD-AAQ scores were associated with general psychological inflexibility, anxiety and depression and inversely correlated with psychological well-being. Moreover, the results showed that CVD-AAQ scores are associated with two relevant risk factors for cardiac patients, namely low adherence to medication and being overweight. In sum, results suggest that the CVD-AAQ is a reliable and valid measure of heart disease-specific psychological inflexibility with interesting clinical applications for secondary prevention care.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1284
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Volume5
Issue numberNOV
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Keywords

  • Acceptance
  • Adherence to treatment
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular Disease Acceptance and Action Questionnaire
  • Experiential avoidance
  • Psychological inflexibility

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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