Development and Validation of a Risk Score for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The STARS Questionnaire

STARS Survey Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: To develop and validate a risk score for AMD based on a simple self-administered questionnaire. Methods: Risk factors having shown the most consistent associations with AMD were included in the STARS (Simplified Théa AMD Risk-Assessment Scale) questionnaire. Two studies were conducted, one in Italy (127 participating ophthalmologists) and one in France (80 participating ophthalmologists). During 1 week, participating ophthalmologists invited all their patients aged 55 years or older to fill in the STARS questionnaire. Based on fundus examination, early AMD was defined by the presence of soft drusen and/or pigmentary abnormalities and late AMD by the presence of geographic atrophy and/or neovascular AMD. Results: The Italian and French samples consisted of 12,639 and 6897 patients, respectively. All 13 risk factors included in the STARS questionnaire showed significant associations with AMD in the Italian sample. The area under the receiving operating characteristic curve for the STARS risk score, derived from the multivariate logistic regression in the Italian sample, was 0.78 in the Italian sample and 0.72 in the French sample. In both samples, less than 10% of patients without AMD were classified at high risk, and less than 13% of late AMD cases were classified as low risk, with a more intermediate situation in early AMD cases. Conclusions: STARS is a new, simple self-assessed questionnaire showing good discrimination of risk for AMD in two large European samples. It might be used by ophthalmologists in routine clinical practice or as a self-assessment for risk of AMD in the general population.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6399-6407
Number of pages9
JournalInvestigative ophthalmology & visual science
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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