Development and validation of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Infant Scale

Melissa R. Mandarakas, Manoj P. Menezes, Kristy J. Rose, Rosemary Shy, Kate Eichinger, Maria Foscan, Timothy Estilow, Rachel Kennedy, Karen Herbert, Paula Bray, Kathryn Refshauge, Monique M. Ryan, Eppie M. Yiu, Michelle Farrar, Hugo Sampaio, Isabella Moroni, Emanuela Pagliano, Davide Pareyson, Sabrina W. Yum, David N. HerrmannGyula Acsadi, Michael E. Shy, Joshua Burns, Oranee Sanmaneechai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Many genetic subtypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) show signs of symptomatic disease during the earliest years of life. This might be the ideal time to intervene before progression of clinical sequelae due to demyelination and axonal loss. In the absence of disease-specific clinical trial outcome measures for CMT during infancy and early childhood the aim of this study was to develop and validate a functional measure of disease severity, known as the Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Infant Scale (CMTInfS). Development projects involved identification of a preliminary pool of 31 items representing the range of disability in affected patients aged 0-4 years from a systematic review of the literature, peer review by 12 expert clinicians and researchers in the field, design of a scoring algorithm and pilot testing in 22 participants. Subsequently, a series of validation projects were conducted based on 128 assessments of: 26 confirmed cases of inherited neuropathy (17 CMT1A, one CMT1B, one CMT1D, one CMT2C, one CMT2S, two CMT4C, one CMTX3, one Riboflavin Transporter Deficiency Type 2, and one unidentified mutation); seven 'at risk' cases and 95 unaffected healthy controls recruited through the NIH-funded Inherited Neuropathies Consortium. Validation projects included: Item, Factor and Rasch analysis, intra- and inter-rater reliability, discriminant ability and convergent validity with the CMT Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS) for children aged 3-4 years. Development and validation projects produced a psychometrically robust 15-item scale. Rasch analysis supported the viability of the CMTInfS as a unidimensional measure of disease severity and showed good overall model fit, no evidence of misfitting items or persons and was well targeted for affected children. The CMTInfS demonstrated high intra-rater reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)3,1 0.999, 95% confidence interval 0.996-1.000) and inter-rater reliability (ICC2,1 0.997, 95% confidence interval 0.992-0.999). The CMTInfS was able to discriminate between the CMT group and controls (P = 0.006), and convergent validity demonstrated good agreement between CMTInfS and CMTPedS scores (r = 0.76, P = 0.01). The final version of the CMTInfS requires 20 min to administer and is a reliable and sensitive functional outcome measure for early onset CMT and related neuropathies.10.1093/brain/awy280_video1awy280media15970672819001.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3319-3330
Number of pages12
JournalBrain : a journal of neurology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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