Development and Validation of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales-Residential Facility (HoNOS-RF)

Laura Pedrini, Mariangela Lanfredi, Clarissa Ferrari, Sonia Andreose, Pasquale Basso, Rossella Beneduce, Rosaria Pioli, Luciana Rillosi, Giuseppe Rossi, Roberta Rossi, Giovanni Battista Tura

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The Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS) (Lora et al. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 10(3):198–212, 2001) is widely used. However, clinicians have expressed concerns about its ability to describe severe mentally ill patients, as it does not consider some relevant clinical aspects. This study aims to develop and validate the HoNOS-Residential Facility (HoNOS-RF) in order to pursue a thorough assessment of patients admitted to psychiatric residential facilities (RFs). The final version of the HoNOS-RF was administered to 409 patients admitted to four RFs. Exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach’ alpha (α), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) were used to assess construct validity, internal consistency and reliability, respectively. Concurrent criterion validity was assessed through correlations with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded Version (BPRS-E) (Roncone et al. Acta Psychiatric Scand 100(3):229–36, 1999), Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) (Morosini et al. Acta Psychiatric Scand 101(4): 323–29, 2000), and comparisons across diagnostic groups. The final version of the HoNOS-RF consisted of 31 items, grouped into the following eight factors (overall explaining 55% of the total variability): personal and interpersonal functioning; environment; behavior and burden of care; cognitive function; somatic problems; anxiety-depression symptoms; psychotic symptoms; and other psychiatric symptoms. The scale showed high internal consistency (α = .807), and the correlations with PSP and BPRS-E ranged from adequate to moderate. The ICCs were in the excellent range for almost all items. These findings support the validity and the reliability of the HoNOS-RF, thus it may be a useful tool for the assessment of patients admitted to RFs, as it addresses clinical aspects that were mostly not included in the original version.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalPsychiatric Quarterly
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2017



  • Assessment
  • HoNOS
  • Psychosocial functioning
  • Residential facilities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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