Development of a new specific questionnaire for hypertensive patients

Francesco Bamfi, Gianfranco De Carli, Fabio Arpinelli, Giuseppe Recchia, Sydney H. Irvine, Giovanni Apolone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective The treatment aim of hypertension is to reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Although current available therapies proved to be effective in reducing blood pressure, their impact on other relevant patient outcomes, such as quality of life, have yet to be satisfactorily addressed. To overcome this, we launched a multi-step project to develop a specific questionnaire in the Italian setting. Methods The project started with an initial meeting of eight cardiologists, who considered medical aspects of the pathology, and nine regional focus groups including a total of 137 patients. The resulting questionnaire (45 items) was then subjected to a psychometrical evaluation using two different groups (n = 405 and n = 3000). Results Several items showed low item-total correlation, so they were removed and a total of 29 items was retained (Cronbach's α = 0.92). Factor analysis showed that three factors correlated: 'emotional well-being', revealing that low quality of life status is effectively predicted by items assessing depression and self-esteem; 'daily living activities', revealing individual differences in the extent of restriction induced by hypertension; and 'physical functioning', providing precise and extensive evidence of physical constraints. A one-way analysis of variance conducted on the scales of the questionnaires showed significant differences, most evident in the case of systolic blood pressure and number of symptoms. Conclusions Although additional evidence needs to be gathered before encouraging the use of the present questionnaire outside formal research projects, we consider our aim of developing a valid instrument for the assessment of quality of life in hypertensive patients to have been largely realised.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Hypertension, Supplement
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1998


  • Health-related quality of life
  • Hypertension
  • Psychometric methods
  • Reliability
  • Responsiveness
  • Validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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