Canine X-linked muscular dystrophy (CXMD) is genetically homologous to Duchenne muscular dystrophy and shares the severe myopathy and lethal clinical development of the human disease. We used immunohistochemistry to characterize the time course of postnatal expression of adult fast, adult slow and developmental myosin in the muscle of CXMD dogs, carriers and healthy controls. We also characterized the expression of utrophin and dystrophin. This detailed immunolocalization study confirmed that postnatal muscle maturation is delayed in normal dogs compared to other animals and humans, and is only achieved at around 60 days. In CXMD dogs major derangement of myosin expression became evident from about 15 days; there was a selective loss of fibers expressing fast myosin and persistence of developmental fibers compared to controls. In carriers, the proportion of dystrophin-deficient fibers, which mainly expressed fast myosin, decreased with age. In controls and carriers utrophin was absent from muscle fiber surfaces in 2-day-old animals but present between 15 and 30 days, to mostly disappear by 60 days. In dystrophic animals, sarcolemmal expression of utrophin was more marked and persistent. That immature neonatal muscle from control dogs normally contains sarcolemmal utrophin may have implications for the success of utrophin up-regulation therapy to correct the dystrophic phenotype. The data of this study provide important baseline information for further studies on the development and progression of pathological changes in the muscle of CXMD dogs.
- Canine X-linked muscular dystrophy
- Duchenne dystrophy
- Muscle maturation
- Myosin isoforms
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine