Development of orofacial praxis of children from 4 to 8 years of age

F. Bearzotti, A. Tavano, F. Fabbro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Orofacial praxis is the ability to plan and execute movements or sequences of voluntary movements, meaningful or not, using the muscles of the pharyngo-buccofacial system or the orofacial region. An original test was developed, the Orofacial Praxis Test, consisting of 36 gestures, 24 single and 12 complex, elicited through verbal and imitative request. The test was administered to 93 normally developing Italian children ages 4 to 8 yr. to assess development of orofacial praxis. Analysis showed a progressive development of the orofacial praxic ability by type of gesture and examiner's request: (1) the imitation modality is more facilitating than a verbal request modality, especially for children ages 4 or 5 years; (2) a consistent mastery of sequences of gestures and oroverbal movements is in place by age 6 years, The analysis of the orofacial region may be helpful in identifying persistent speech difficulties and developmental coordination disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1355-1366
Number of pages12
JournalPerceptual and Motor Skills
Issue number3 II
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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