Diagnosing acute encephalitis in patients with hematological disorders: caveats and pitfalls

Elisa Vegezzi, Giulia Berzero, Desiree Barbetta, Anna Amelia Colombo, Oscar Borsani, Paolo Bernasconi, Francesca Compagno, Marco Zecca, Giulia Campanini, Anna Simoncelli, Matteo Paoletti, Anna Pichiecchio, Fausto Baldanti, Enrico Brunetti, Enrico Marchioni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The aim of this study was to review the quality of the diagnostic work-up for acute encephalitis carried out at our center in a cohort of patients with hematological disorders. Our data showed substantial heterogeneity in investigating patients. Not all patients had their CSF tested for viruses commonly responsible for encephalitis in immunocompetent individuals (e.g., VZV, enterovirus). A blood sample for the calculation of the CSF/blood replication ratio was collected in 74% of cases. CSF cultures and immunophenotyping of CSF cells were performed in 77% and 21% of patients, respectively. A multidisciplinary consensus is needed to improve current guidelines and standardize diagnostic protocols.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of NeuroVirology
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2019


  • Acute encephalitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Hematological disorders
  • Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
  • Immunocompromised patients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Virology


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