Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy or combination antiretroviral therapy (HAART and cART, respectively) patients infected with HIV might develop certain types of cancer more frequently than uninfected people. Lymphomas represent the most frequent malignancy among patients with HIV. Other cancer types that have increased in these patients include Kaposi sarcoma, cancer of the cervix, anus, lung and liver. In the post-HAART era, however, patients with HIV have experienced a significant improvement in their morbidity, mortality and life expectancy. This Review focuses on the different types of lymphomas that generally occur in patients with HIV. The combination of cART and antineoplastic treatment has resulted in remarkable prolongation of disease-free survival and overall survival among patients with HIV who develop lymphoma. However, the survival in these patients still lags behind that of patients with lymphoma who are not infected with HIV. We also provide an update of epidemiological data, diagnostic issues, and strategies regarding the most-appropriate management of patients with both HIV and lymphomas.
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