Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary (Idiopathic) Dystonia

A. Albanese, F. Asmus, A. Berardelli, K. Bhatia, A. E. Elia, B. Elibol, G. Filippini, T. Gasser, J. K. Krauss, N. Nardocci, A. Newton, J. Valls-Solé, M. Vidailhet

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Handbook of Neurological Management: Second Edition
Number of pages16
ISBN (Print)9781405185332
Publication statusPublished - Sep 6 2010


  • Botulinum toxin treatment, continuing to be first choice treatment-for most types of focal dystonia
  • Brain imaging in diagnosis of dystonia
  • Classification of dystonia-based on three axes
  • Diagnosis and treatment of primary (idiopathic) dystonia
  • Dystonia, characterized by sustained muscle contractions-causing repetitive twisting movements or abnormal postures
  • DYT1 mutations, most important genetic cause-of early onset PPD worldwide
  • DYT12, rapid-onset dystonia-parkinsonism (RDP)-mutated gene, being ATP1A3
  • Long-term electrical stimulation of globus pallidus internus (GPi)-now established as an effective treatment for various types of dystonia
  • Most common form, DRD linked to GCH1 (GTPcyclohydrolase I) gene
  • Use of genetic test in diagnosis and counselling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this