Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

Luca Elli, Federica Branchi, Carolina Tomba, Danilo Villalta, Lorenzo Norsa, Francesca Ferretti, Leda Roncoroni, Maria Teresa Bardella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7110-7119
Number of pages10
JournalWorld Journal of Gastroenterology
Volume21
Issue number23
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 21 2015

Fingerprint

Wheat Hypersensitivity
Glutens
Celiac Disease
Serologic Tests
Serology
Differential Diagnosis
Eating
History
Biopsy

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • Celiac disease
  • Gluten sensitivity
  • Gluten-free diet
  • Wheat sensitivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

Diagnosis of gluten related disorders : Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. / Elli, Luca; Branchi, Federica; Tomba, Carolina; Villalta, Danilo; Norsa, Lorenzo; Ferretti, Francesca; Roncoroni, Leda; Bardella, Maria Teresa.

In: World Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol. 21, No. 23, 21.06.2015, p. 7110-7119.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Elli, L, Branchi, F, Tomba, C, Villalta, D, Norsa, L, Ferretti, F, Roncoroni, L & Bardella, MT 2015, 'Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity', World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 21, no. 23, pp. 7110-7119. https://doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110
Elli, Luca ; Branchi, Federica ; Tomba, Carolina ; Villalta, Danilo ; Norsa, Lorenzo ; Ferretti, Francesca ; Roncoroni, Leda ; Bardella, Maria Teresa. / Diagnosis of gluten related disorders : Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. In: World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2015 ; Vol. 21, No. 23. pp. 7110-7119.
@article{79a102fe32424512bf2c987e62620183,
title = "Diagnosis of gluten related disorders: Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity",
abstract = "Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5{\%}. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.",
keywords = "Allergy, Celiac disease, Gluten sensitivity, Gluten-free diet, Wheat sensitivity",
author = "Luca Elli and Federica Branchi and Carolina Tomba and Danilo Villalta and Lorenzo Norsa and Francesca Ferretti and Leda Roncoroni and Bardella, {Maria Teresa}",
year = "2015",
month = "6",
day = "21",
doi = "10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110",
language = "English",
volume = "21",
pages = "7110--7119",
journal = "World Journal of Gastroenterology",
issn = "1007-9327",
publisher = "WJG Press",
number = "23",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Diagnosis of gluten related disorders

T2 - Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity

AU - Elli, Luca

AU - Branchi, Federica

AU - Tomba, Carolina

AU - Villalta, Danilo

AU - Norsa, Lorenzo

AU - Ferretti, Francesca

AU - Roncoroni, Leda

AU - Bardella, Maria Teresa

PY - 2015/6/21

Y1 - 2015/6/21

N2 - Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

AB - Cereal crops and cereal consumption have had a vital role in Mankind's history. In the recent years gluten ingestion has been linked with a range of clinical disorders. Gluten-related disorders have gradually emerged as an epidemiologically relevant phenomenon with an estimated global prevalence around 5%. Celiac disease, wheat allergy and non-celiac gluten sensitivity represent different gluten-related disorders. Similar clinical manifestations can be observed in these disorders, yet there are peculiar pathogenetic pathways involved in their development. Celiac disease and wheat allergy have been extensively studied, while non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a relatively novel clinical entity, believed to be closely related to other gastrointestinal functional syndromes. The diagnosis of celiac disease and wheat allergy is based on a combination of findings from the patient's clinical history and specific tests, including serology and duodenal biopsies in case of celiac disease, or laboratory and functional assays for wheat allergy. On the other hand, non-celiac gluten sensitivity is still mainly a diagnosis of exclusion, in the absence of clear-cut diagnostic criteria. A multimodal pragmatic approach combining findings from the clinical history, symptoms, serological and histological tests is required in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. A thorough knowledge of the differences and overlap in clinical presentation among gluten-related disorders, and between them and other gastrointestinal disorders, will help clinicians in the process of differential diagnosis.

KW - Allergy

KW - Celiac disease

KW - Gluten sensitivity

KW - Gluten-free diet

KW - Wheat sensitivity

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84937929473&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84937929473&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110

DO - 10.3748/wjg.v21.i23.7110

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84937929473

VL - 21

SP - 7110

EP - 7119

JO - World Journal of Gastroenterology

JF - World Journal of Gastroenterology

SN - 1007-9327

IS - 23

ER -