Diet and Lifestyle Role in Homocysteine Metabolism in Turner Syndrome

Valeria Calcaterra, Daniela Larizza, Rachele De Giuseppe, Federica De Liso, Catherine Klersy, Riccardo Albertini, Irene Pozzebon, Maria Pilar Princis, Chiara Montalbano, Alexandra Madè, Hellas Cena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) have an unfavorable cardiometabolic profile. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potential cardiovascular risk factor influenced by genetic and environmental factors, therapies, unbalanced diets and other lifestyle factors. We retrospectively studied the relationship between total plasma homocysteine (Hcy), serum vitamin B12 (B12) and folate concentration in TS patients, taking into account the genetic profile, diet, smoking habits, hormonal therapies and dietary supplements of the subjects. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 50 TS patients (31.5 12.5 years). Medication, including vitamin supplementation, was obtained. Eating habits, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption were investigated using phone interviews. Levels of Hcy metabolism parameters were classified by using the relevant cutoff value for an adult population and compared with a reference sample drawn from the general population. Results: Inadequate Hcy and B12 levels were noted, despite vitamin supplementation. Holotranscobalamin (HoloTC) was above the relevant cutoff in the population, and supplemented subjects showed mean levels lower than nonsupplemented subjects (p = 0.005). Dietary supplementation (p = 0.038), lifestyle (coffee consumption, p = 0.01) and hormonal replacement therapy (p = 0.02) are important factors for Hcy metabolism. No genetic influ- ence on Hcy levels was noted. Multivariable regression analysis identified vitamin supplementation (p = 0.045) as the only independent predictor of increased Hcy levels. Conclusion: Cardiovascular risk in TS can be reduced using educational approaches to a healthy lifestyle with dietary guidelines. Besides this, we also recommend measuring HoloTC for the prompt detection of B12 deficiency and to consider hormone replacement therapy in the biochemical assessment of homocysteine in TS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)48-55
Number of pages8
JournalMedical Principles and Practice
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2019


  • Cardiovascular risk
  • Diet
  • Homocysteine
  • Lifestyle
  • Turner syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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