Diet Supplementation, Probiotics, and Nutraceuticals in SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Scoping Review

Fabio Infusino, Massimiliano Marazzato, Massimo Mancone, Francesco Fedele, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Paolo Severino, Giancarlo Ceccarelli, Letizia Santinelli, Elena Cavarretta, Antonino G M Marullo, Fabio Miraldi, Roberto Carnevale, Cristina Nocella, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Cristiano Pagnini, Sonia Schiavon, Francesco Pugliese, Giacomo Frati, Gabriella d'Ettorre

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The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2) global pandemic is a devastating event that is causing thousands of victims every day around the world. One of the main reasons of the great impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on society is its unexpected spread, which has not allowed an adequate preparation. The scientific community is fighting against time for the production of a vaccine, but it is difficult to place a safe and effective product on the market as fast as the virus is spreading. Similarly, for drugs that can directly interfere with viral pathways, their production times are long, despite the great efforts made. For these reasons, we analyzed the possible role of non-pharmacological substances such as supplements, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in reducing the risk of Sars-CoV-2 infection or mitigating the symptoms of COVID-19. These substances could have numerous advantages in the current circumstances, are generally easily available, and have negligible side effects if administered at the already used and tested dosages. Large scientific evidence supports the benefits that some bacterial and molecular products may exert on the immune response to respiratory viruses. These could also have a regulatory role in systemic inflammation or endothelial damage, which are two crucial aspects of COVID-19. However, there are no specific data available, and rigorous clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the putative benefits of diet supplementation, probiotics, and nutraceuticals in the current pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 8 2020


  • Ascorbic Acid/therapeutic use
  • Betacoronavirus
  • Coronavirus Infections/diet therapy
  • Diet
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Humans
  • Pandemics/prevention & control
  • Pneumonia, Viral/diet therapy
  • Probiotics/therapeutic use
  • Vitamin D/therapeutic use


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