Nutritional medical treatment is the first step to achieve adequate glycemic control and prevent diabetic complications. Lifestyle changes include moderate weight loss (7%) and regular physical activity (150 min/week). The appropriate diet composition is <30% total fat, <10% saturated fats, > 15 g/1000 kcal fiber, half soluble, 45-60% of carbohydrates with a moderate intake of sugar (50 g/day) and protein intake of 15-20% of the total calories a day. Patients need to limit the intake of saturated fats to <7% of the daily calorie intake. Monounsaturated fatty acids such as olive oil and other vegetable oils are recommended. L-carnitine, α-lipoic acid, berberine and ω-3 fatty acids can be useful supplements.
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