Cutaneous malignant melanoma is a heterogeneous disease, being the consequence of specific genetic alterations along several molecular pathways. Despite the increased knowledge about the biology and pathogenesis of melanoma, the incidence has grown markedly worldwide, making it extremely important to develop preventive measures. The beneficial role of correct nutrition and of some natural dietary compounds in preventing malignant melanoma has been widely demonstrated. This led to numerous studies investigating the role of several dietary attitudes, patterns, and supplements in the prevention of melanoma, and ongoing research investigates their impact in the clinical management and outcomes of patients diagnosed with the disease. This article is an overview of recent scientific advances regarding specific dietary compounds and their impact on melanoma development and treatment.