Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries

Ivonne Sluijs, Joline W J Beulens, Yvonne T. Van Der Schouw, Daphne L. Van Der A, Genevieve Buckland, Anneleen Kuijsten, Matthias B. Schulze, Pilar Amiano, Eva Ardanaz, Beverley Balkau, Heiner Boeing, Diana Gavrila, Verena A. Grote, Timothy J. Key, Kuanrong Li, Peter Nilsson, Kim Overvad, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, J. R. QuiŕosOlov Rolandsson, Nina Roswall, Carlotta Sacerdote, Maŕa Jośe Śanchez, Sabina Sieri, Nadia Slimani, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjønneland, Rosario Tumino, Stephen J. Sharp, Claudia Langenberg, Edith J M Feskens, Nita G. Forouhi, Elio Riboli, Nicholas J. Wareham

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Abstract

The association of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We investigated associations of dietary GI, GL, and digestible carbohydrate with incident type 2 diabetes.We performed a case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study, including a random subcohort (n = 16,835) and incident type 2 diabetes cases (n = 12,403). The median follow-up time was 12 y. Baseline dietary intakes were assessed using countryspecific dietary questionnaires. Country-specific HR were calculated and pooled using random effects meta-analysis. Dietary GI, GL,and digestible carbohydrate in the subcohortwere (mean± SD) 56± 4, 127± 23, and 226± 36 g/d, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, GI and GL were not associated with incident diabetes [HR highest vs. lowest quartile (HRQ4) forGI: 1.05 (95%CI=0.96, 1.16); HRQ4 for GL: 1.07 (95%CI = 0.95, 1.20)]. Digestible carbohydrate intake was not associated with incident diabetes[HRQ4: 0.98 (95% CI = 0.86, 1.10)]. In additional analyses, we found that discrepancies in the GI value assignment to foods possibly explain differences in GI associationswith diabeteswithin the same study population. In conclusion, an expansion of the GI tables and systematic GI value assignment to foods may be needed to improve the validity of GI values derived in such studies, after which GI associations may need reevaluation. Our study shows that digestible carbohydrate intake is not associated with diabetes risk and suggests that diabetes risk with high-GI and -GL diets may be more modest than initial studies suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-99
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume143
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2013

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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Sluijs, I., Beulens, J. W. J., Van Der Schouw, Y. T., Van Der A, D. L., Buckland, G., Kuijsten, A., Schulze, M. B., Amiano, P., Ardanaz, E., Balkau, B., Boeing, H., Gavrila, D., Grote, V. A., Key, T. J., Li, K., Nilsson, P., Overvad, K., Palli, D., Panico, S., ... Wareham, N. J. (2013). Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and digestible carbohydrate intake are not associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in eight European countries. Journal of Nutrition, 143(1), 93-99. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.165605