Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort

Esther Molina-Montes, Petra A. Wark, María José Sánchez, Teresa Norat, Paula Jakszyn, Leila Luján-Barroso, Dominique S. Michaud, Francesca Crowe, Naomi Allen, Kay Tee Khaw, Nicholas Wareham, Antonia Trichopoulou, George Adarakis, Helen Katarachia, Guri Skeie, Maria Henningsen, Ann Ragnhild Broderstad, Franco Berrino, Rosario Tumino, Domenico PalliAmalia Mattiello, Paolo Vineis, Pilar Amiano, Aurelio Barricarte, José María Huerta, Eric J. Duell, José Ramõn Quirõs, Weimin Ye, Malin Sund, Björn Lindkvist, Dorthe Johansen, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Nina Roswall, Kuanrong Li, Verena A. Grote, Annika Steffen, Heiner Boeing, Antoine Racine, Marie Christine Boutron-Ruault, Franck Carbonnel, Petra H M Peeters, Peter D. Siersema, Veronika Fedirko, Mazda Jenab, Elio Riboli, Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Volume131
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2012

Fingerprint

Dietary Iron
Heme
Pancreatic Neoplasms
Magnesium
Iron
Neoplasms
Confidence Intervals
Energy Intake
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Calibration
Body Mass Index
Smoking
Weights and Measures
Food

Keywords

  • cohort
  • diet
  • epidemiology
  • iron
  • magnesium
  • nutrients
  • pancreatic cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. / Molina-Montes, Esther; Wark, Petra A.; Sánchez, María José; Norat, Teresa; Jakszyn, Paula; Luján-Barroso, Leila; Michaud, Dominique S.; Crowe, Francesca; Allen, Naomi; Khaw, Kay Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Adarakis, George; Katarachia, Helen; Skeie, Guri; Henningsen, Maria; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Berrino, Franco; Tumino, Rosario; Palli, Domenico; Mattiello, Amalia; Vineis, Paolo; Amiano, Pilar; Barricarte, Aurelio; Huerta, José María; Duell, Eric J.; Quirõs, José Ramõn; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Lindkvist, Björn; Johansen, Dorthe; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina; Li, Kuanrong; Grote, Verena A.; Steffen, Annika; Boeing, Heiner; Racine, Antoine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine; Carbonnel, Franck; Peeters, Petra H M; Siersema, Peter D.; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas.

In: International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 131, No. 7, 01.10.2012.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Molina-Montes, E, Wark, PA, Sánchez, MJ, Norat, T, Jakszyn, P, Luján-Barroso, L, Michaud, DS, Crowe, F, Allen, N, Khaw, KT, Wareham, N, Trichopoulou, A, Adarakis, G, Katarachia, H, Skeie, G, Henningsen, M, Broderstad, AR, Berrino, F, Tumino, R, Palli, D, Mattiello, A, Vineis, P, Amiano, P, Barricarte, A, Huerta, JM, Duell, EJ, Quirõs, JR, Ye, W, Sund, M, Lindkvist, B, Johansen, D, Overvad, K, Tjønneland, A, Roswall, N, Li, K, Grote, VA, Steffen, A, Boeing, H, Racine, A, Boutron-Ruault, MC, Carbonnel, F, Peeters, PHM, Siersema, PD, Fedirko, V, Jenab, M, Riboli, E & Bueno-De-Mesquita, B 2012, 'Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort', International Journal of Cancer, vol. 131, no. 7. https://doi.org/10.1002/ijc.27547
Molina-Montes, Esther ; Wark, Petra A. ; Sánchez, María José ; Norat, Teresa ; Jakszyn, Paula ; Luján-Barroso, Leila ; Michaud, Dominique S. ; Crowe, Francesca ; Allen, Naomi ; Khaw, Kay Tee ; Wareham, Nicholas ; Trichopoulou, Antonia ; Adarakis, George ; Katarachia, Helen ; Skeie, Guri ; Henningsen, Maria ; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild ; Berrino, Franco ; Tumino, Rosario ; Palli, Domenico ; Mattiello, Amalia ; Vineis, Paolo ; Amiano, Pilar ; Barricarte, Aurelio ; Huerta, José María ; Duell, Eric J. ; Quirõs, José Ramõn ; Ye, Weimin ; Sund, Malin ; Lindkvist, Björn ; Johansen, Dorthe ; Overvad, Kim ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Roswall, Nina ; Li, Kuanrong ; Grote, Verena A. ; Steffen, Annika ; Boeing, Heiner ; Racine, Antoine ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine ; Carbonnel, Franck ; Peeters, Petra H M ; Siersema, Peter D. ; Fedirko, Veronika ; Jenab, Mazda ; Riboli, Elio ; Bueno-De-Mesquita, Bas. / Dietary intake of iron, heme-iron and magnesium and pancreatic cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition cohort. In: International Journal of Cancer. 2012 ; Vol. 131, No. 7.
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AU - Molina-Montes, Esther

AU - Wark, Petra A.

AU - Sánchez, María José

AU - Norat, Teresa

AU - Jakszyn, Paula

AU - Luján-Barroso, Leila

AU - Michaud, Dominique S.

AU - Crowe, Francesca

AU - Allen, Naomi

AU - Khaw, Kay Tee

AU - Wareham, Nicholas

AU - Trichopoulou, Antonia

AU - Adarakis, George

AU - Katarachia, Helen

AU - Skeie, Guri

AU - Henningsen, Maria

AU - Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild

AU - Berrino, Franco

AU - Tumino, Rosario

AU - Palli, Domenico

AU - Mattiello, Amalia

AU - Vineis, Paolo

AU - Amiano, Pilar

AU - Barricarte, Aurelio

AU - Huerta, José María

AU - Duell, Eric J.

AU - Quirõs, José Ramõn

AU - Ye, Weimin

AU - Sund, Malin

AU - Lindkvist, Björn

AU - Johansen, Dorthe

AU - Overvad, Kim

AU - Tjønneland, Anne

AU - Roswall, Nina

AU - Li, Kuanrong

AU - Grote, Verena A.

AU - Steffen, Annika

AU - Boeing, Heiner

AU - Racine, Antoine

AU - Boutron-Ruault, Marie Christine

AU - Carbonnel, Franck

AU - Peeters, Petra H M

AU - Siersema, Peter D.

AU - Fedirko, Veronika

AU - Jenab, Mazda

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N2 - Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

AB - Several studies support a protective effect of dietary magnesium against type 2 diabetes, but a harmful effect for iron. As diabetes has been linked to pancreatic cancer, intake of these nutrients may be also associated with this cancer. We examined the association between dietary intake of magnesium, total iron and heme-iron and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In total, 142,203 men and 334,999 women, recruited between 1992 and 2000, were included. After an average follow-up of 11.3 years, 396 men and 469 women developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox regression stratified by age and center, and adjusted for energy intake, smoking status, height, weight, and self-reported diabetes status. Neither intake of magnesium, total iron nor heme-iron was associated with pancreatic cancer risk. In stratified analyses, a borderline inverse association was observed among overweight men (body mass index, ≥25 kg/m 2) with magnesium (HR per 100 mg/day increase = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-1.01) although this was less apparent using calibrated intake. In female smokers, a higher intake of heme-iron was associated with a higher pancreatic cancer risk (HR per 1 mg/day increase = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.10-1.74). After calibration, this risk increased significantly to 2.5-fold (95% CI = 1.22-5.28). Overall, dietary magnesium, total iron and heme-iron were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk during the follow-up period. Our observation that heme-iron was associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk in female smokers warrants replication in additional study populations.

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KW - epidemiology

KW - iron

KW - magnesium

KW - nutrients

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