Dietary patterns in italy and the risk of renal cell carcinoma

M. Dalmartello, F. Bravi, D. Serraino, A. Crispo, M. Ferraroni, C. La Vecchia, V. Edefonti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Conclusive evidence on foods, nutrients, or dietary patterns and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is lacking in the literature. Methods: We considered data from an Italian hospital-based case–control study (1992–2004) on 767 incident RCC cases and 1534 controls. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified by applying principal component factor analysis on 28 nutrients derived from a 78-item food-frequency questionnaire. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) of RCC and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each quartile category (compared to the lowest one) using conditional multiple logistic regression models providing adjustment for major confounding factors. Results: We identified four dietary patterns, named “Animal products“, “Starch-rich“, “Vitamins and fiber“, and “Cooking oils and dressings“. Higher intakes of the “Starch-rich” pattern were positively associated with RCC risk (OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.04–1.82 for the highest quartile, p = 0.018). The association was inverse with the “Cooking oils and dressings” pattern (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.47–0.80, p <0.001), whereas no association was found with “Animal products” and “Vitamins and fiber” patterns. Conclusions: Higher intakes of starch-related foods may increase RCC risk, whereas consumption of olive and seed oils may favorably influence RCC risk. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages16
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Case-control study
  • Diet
  • Dietary patterns
  • Factor analysis
  • Kidney cancer
  • Renal cell carcinoma
  • beta carotene
  • calcium
  • linoleic acid
  • riboflavin
  • saturated fatty acid
  • starch
  • trace element
  • vitamin
  • zinc
  • adult
  • aged
  • animal product
  • Article
  • body mass
  • cancer risk
  • case control study
  • cheese
  • controlled study
  • dietary pattern
  • female
  • food composition
  • food frequency questionnaire
  • histology
  • human
  • human tissue
  • hypertension
  • ICD-9
  • Italy
  • low back pain
  • macronutrient
  • major clinical study
  • male
  • meat
  • multicenter study
  • null hypothesis
  • nutrient intake
  • reliability
  • renal cell carcinoma
  • reproducibility
  • clinical trial
  • diet
  • feeding behavior
  • kidney tumor
  • middle aged
  • odds ratio
  • principal component analysis
  • questionnaire
  • risk factor
  • young adult
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carcinoma, Renal Cell
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Neoplasms
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Odds Ratio
  • Principal Component Analysis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


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