OBJECT: The study examines the association between dietary intake of vitamin C, E, and carotenoids and the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,138 incident, histologically confirmed cases of RCC and 5,039 population controls, including information on socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 years before data collection. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Dietary intake of beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was inversely associated with the risk of RCC. The ORs for the highest versus the lowest quartile were 0.74 (95% CI, 0.59-0.92) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.62-0.95), respectively. The significant inverse association with beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin was more pronounced in women, and in overweight or obese subjects. The relation of lutein/zeaxanthin to RCC was stronger in ever smokers. No clear association was observed with vitamin C and E, beta-cryptozanthin, and lycopene. CONCLUSION: The findings provide evidence that a diet rich in beta-carotene and lutein/zeaxanthin may play a role in RCC prevention.
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