Differences and similarities between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2: spike receptor-binding domain recognition and host cell infection with support of cellular serine proteases

Giovanni A Rossi, Oliviero Sacco, Enrica Mancino, Luca Cristiani, Fabio Midulla

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

Abstract

Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) became pandemic by the end of March 2020. In contrast to the 2002-2003 SARS-CoV outbreak, which had a higher pathogenicity and lead to higher mortality rates, SARSCoV-2 infection appears to be much more contagious. Moreover, many SARS-CoV-2 infected patients are reported to develop low-titer neutralizing antibody and usually suffer prolonged illness, suggesting a more effective SARS-CoV-2 immune surveillance evasion than SARS-CoV. This paper summarizes the current state of art about the differences and similarities between the pathogenesis of the two coronaviruses, focusing on receptor binding domain, host cell entry and protease activation. Such differences may provide insight into possible intervention strategies to fight the pandemic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)665-669
Number of pages5
JournalInfection
Volume48
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2
  • Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis
  • Betacoronavirus/immunology
  • COVID-19
  • Cathepsins/genetics
  • Coronavirus Infections/enzymology
  • Enzyme Activation/immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Evasion
  • Pandemics
  • Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics
  • Pneumonia, Viral/enzymology
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Domains
  • SARS Virus/immunology
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/enzymology
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
  • Virus Internalization
  • Virus Replication

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