The presence of sex differences in pain are well known. In this review some former and recent data on several aspects of pain research relative to sex differences are highlighted. In particular the limbic system, including the hypothalamus and the hippocampus, with its involvement in arousal and attention, is confirmed to show several sex differences revealed with behavioral and hormonal parameters. The main gonadal hormones estradiol and testosterone are described in their pro-algesic or ipo-algesic effects in both sexes. On the whole these data support the clinical evidence of a higher "ability" of females to retain painful stimuli able to explain the higher incidence of chronic pain in this sex.
- Gonadal hormones
- Sex differences
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine