This study tested whether resting state alpha rhythms (8-13 Hz) may characterize mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (ADMCI) compared with MCI due to chronic kidney disease (CKDMCI). Clinical and resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms from 40 ADMCI, 29 CKDMCI, and 45 cognitively normal elderly (Nold) subjects were available in a national archive. Age, gender, and education were matched in the three groups, and Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) score was paired in the ADMCI and CKDMCI groups. Delta (<4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), beta 2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz) cortical sources were estimated by eLORETA freeware and classified across individuals by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC). Compared with Nold group, posterior alpha 1 source activities were more reduced in ADMCI than CKDMCI group. In contrast, widespread delta source activities were greater in CKDMCI than ADMCI group. These source activities correlated with the MMSE score and correctly classified between Nold and all MCI individuals (AUROCC = 0.8-0.85) and between ADMCI and CKDMCI subjects (AUROCC = 0.75). These results suggest that early AD affects cortical neural synchronization at alpha frequencies underpinning brain arousal and low vigilance in the quiet wakefulness. In contrast, CKD may principally affect cortical neural synchronization at the delta frequencies. Future prospective cross-validation studies will have to test these candidate rsEEG markers for clinical applications and drug discovery.