AIMS: To evaluate whether the clinical and echocardiographic correlates and the prognostic significance of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are different in heart failure patients with reduced (HFrEF), mid-range (HFmrEF), or preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction.
METHODS AND RESULTS: The study included 1663 patients with heart failure caused by ischaemic or hypertensive heart disease or by idiopathic cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular ejection fraction was <40% in 1123 patients (HFrEF), 40-49% in 156 patients (HFmrEF) and ≥50% in 384 patients (HFpEF). Imaging of the right ventricle was performed by echocardiography; RV function was defined on the basis of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and its normalization for pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP). All-cause mortality was the endpoint of survival analysis. Non-sinus rhythm, high heart rate, ischaemic aetiology and E-wave deceleration time <140 ms were associated with a reduced TAPSE in HFrEF patients, whereas PASP >40 mmHg was by far the strongest correlate of a reduced TAPSE in HFpEF and HFmrEF patients (interaction analysis, P = 0.0011). TAPSE/PASP proved to be a powerful predictor of prognosis in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS: The correlates of RV dysfunction differ in HFrEF compared with HFpEF and HFmrEF patients. Regardless of the extent of LV dysfunction, the TAPSE/PASP ratio is a powerful independent predictor of prognosis in all heart failure patients.
- Journal Article