Different degrees of NADPH oxidase 2 regulation and in vivo platelet Activation: Lesson from chronic granulomatous disease

Roberto Carnevale, Lorenzo Loffredo, Valerio Sanguigni, Alessandro Plebani, Paolo Rossi, Claudio Pignata, Baldassarre Martire, Andrea Finocchi, Maria Cristina Pietrogrande, Chiara Azzari, Anna Rosa Soresina, Silvana Martino, Emilia Cirillo, Francesco Martino, Pasquale Pignatelli, Francesco Violi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: In vitro study showed that NADPH oxidase (NOx), the most important enzyme producing reactive oxygen species (ROS), plays a role in the process of platelet activation. However, it is unclear if changes in its activity affect platelet activation in vivo. Methods and Results: In vivo and ex vivo experiments assessing platelet activation were investigated in healthy subjects, obese patients, and subjects with different low rates of NOx2 activity, namely X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD) patients and X-CGD carriers. We included 27 X-CGD patients, 31 women carriers of hereditary deficiency of NOx2, 31 obese women, and 62 healthy subjects matched for sex and age. Plasma levels of soluble sCD40 L (sCD40L) and soluble P (sP)-selectin, 2 markers of in vivo platelet activation, were reduced in X-CGD patients (sCD40L=-55%; sP-selectin=-51%, P <0.001) and in X-CGD carriers (sCD40L=-41%; sP-selectin=-57%, P <0.001) compared with respective controls. Conversely, obese women, who disclosed NOx2 upregulation, had significantly higher plasma levels of sCD40L (+47%, P <0.001) and sP-selectin (+70%, P <0.001) compared with controls. Ex vivo study showed platelet isoprostane downexpression and enhanced platelet NO generation in both X-CGD patients and X-CGD carriers compared with controls; opposite findings were observed in obese patients. Correlation analysis showed that platelet NOx2 regulation was directly associated with plasma levels of sCD40L (R=0.336, P <0.001) and sP-selectin (R=0.441; P <0.001). Conclusions: The study provides the first evidence that in vivo platelet activation is significantly and directly associated with NOx2 activity. Platelet NOx2 may be a novel target for platelet activation inhibition.

Original languageEnglish
Article number000920
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • NOx2
  • Oxidative stress
  • Platelet activation
  • X-CGD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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