The recently discovered second pseudoautosomal region (XqPAR) contains at least two genes, IL9R and SYBL1. Recent findings show that, like XpPAR genes, IL9R escapes X inactivation and its Y allele is also expressed, but SYBL1 seems to act like an X-linked gene, expressed from the active X chromosome but not from the inactive X or Y. Here we show that differences are also seen in the evolution of the sex chromosome locations of IL9R and SYBL1, IL9R is known to be autosomal in mice, and is X-linked only in primates. SYBL1, however, has been found to be on the X chromosome in all mammals tested, from marsupials to humans. Both genes were duplicated on the Y homologue of the terminal portion of the X chromosome during the evolution of Homo sapiens from other higher primates. The inactivation pattern of SYBL1 may be correlated with its longer history of X linkage, and at a more centromeric chromosomal position during evolution; the more recent X linkage and more telomeric position of the IL9R gene may explain its autosomal, 'uninactivated' transcriptional status.
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