Various reports have shown that invertebrate hemocytes are responsive to mammalian neuropeptides and cytokines. In the present study, we demonstrate that corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) fragments (1-24), (1-4), (4-9), (1-13), (1-17), and (11-24) significantly stimulate molluscan hemocyte migration, and the whole sequence (1-39) and the fragment (4-11) have an inhibitory effect. Differences between species were found with respect to the response to individual fragments. Additionally, the (4-11) fragment was able to antagonize some of the stimulatory fragments (4-9) as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α)-induced chemotaxis. Our results suggest that invertebrate hemocytes are able to respond to CRF and ACTH fragments that in turn provide further evidence of the complexity of intercellular signaling within the immune system in relatively primitive animals. Thus, auto- and neuroimmunoregulatory activities in mammals must have had an earlier beginning than previously believed.
- ACTH fragments
- Hemocyte migration
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience