We investigated the pattern of down-regulation of cytokine production in endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) tolerance. A 4-day treatment with LPS (35 μg per mouse) was followed by a challenge on day 6 with one more injection of LPS. Circulating tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) could not be induced (>99% inhibition) by LPS in LPS-tolerant mice; colony-stimulating factor (CSF) was also down-regulated by more than 95%, whereas interferon (IFN) and IL-1 syntheses were only partially inhibited. To study the mechanism of cytokine down-regulation in tolerance, we attempted to reverse the tolerant state by pretreatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13- acetate (PMA) (4 μg per mouse) 10 min before the LPS challenge. PMA completely restored IL-6 production and partially that of CSF. PMA had no effect on IFN production and inhibited the induction of IL-1. TNF production was also not restored by PMA. To investigate the role of endogenously produced cytokines in the development of LPS tolerance, we administered IL- 6, TNF, or IL-1α, using the same treatment schedule as that for LPS. Whereas IL-6 had no effect, IL-1α or TNF induced partial tolerance to LPS in terms of inhibition of LPS-stimulated TNF and IL-6 production. However, a full LPS- tolerant state could not be induced by administration of recombinant cytokines, suggesting the existence of additional mechanisms, such as a loss of LPS receptors or changes in release of soluble binding proteins.
|Number of pages||4|
|Journal||Infection and Immunity|
|Publication status||Published - 1993|
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