Differentiation among bio- and augmented- feedback in technologically assisted rehabilitation

Giovanni Morone, Sheida Ghanbari Ghooshchy, Angela Palomba, Alessio Baricich, Andrea Santamato, Chiara Ciritella, Irene Ciancarelli, Franco Molteni, Francesca Gimigliano, Giovanni Iolascon, Pierluigi Zoccolotti, Stefano Paolucci, Marco Iosa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: In rehabilitation practice, the term ‘feedback’ is often improperly used, with augmented feedback and biofeedback frequently confused, especially when referring to the human-machine interaction during technologically assisted training. The absence of a clear differentiation between these categories represents an unmet need for rehabilitation, emphasized by the advent of new technologies making extensive use of video feedback, exergame, and virtual reality. Area covered: In this review we tried to present scientific knowledge about feedback, biofeedback, augmented feedback and neurofeedback, and related differences in rehabilitation settings, for a more proper use of this terminology. Despite the continuous expansion of the field, few researches clarify the differences among these terms. This scoping review was conducted through the searching of current literature up to May 2020, using following databases: PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science. After literature search a classification system, distinguishing feedback, augmented feedback, and biofeedback, was applied. Expert opinion: There is a need for clear definitions of feedback, biofeedback, augmented feedback, and neurofeedback in rehabilitation, especially in the technologically assisted one based on human-machine interaction. In fact, the fast development of new technologies requires to be based on solid concepts and on a common terminology shared among bioengineers and clinicians.

Original languageEnglish
JournalExpert Review of Medical Devices
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021


  • augmented feedback
  • biofeedback
  • feedback
  • motor control
  • neuroplasticity
  • rehabilitation
  • Sensorimotor learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Biomedical Engineering


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