Direct but not indirect co-culture with osteogenically differentiated human bone marrow stromal cells increases RANKL/OPG ratio in human breast cancer cells generating bone metastases

Chiara Arrigoni, Paola De Luca, Mara Gilardi, Sara Previdi, Massimo Broggini, Matteo Moretti

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Abstract

Background: Bone metastases arise in nearly 70% of patients with advanced breast cancer, but the complex metastatic process has not been completely clarified yet. RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway modifications and the crosstalk between metastatic cells and bone have been indicated as potential drivers of the process. Interactions between tumor and bone cells have been studied in vivo and in vitro, but specific effects of the direct contact between human metastatic cells and human bone cells on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway have not been investigated. Findings: We directly co-cultured bone metastatic human breast cancer cells (BOKL) with osteo-differentiated human mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) from 3 different donors. BMSCs and BOKL were then enzymatically separated and FACS sorted. We found a significant increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio as compared to control, which was not observed in BOKL cultured in medium conditioned by BMSCs, neither in BOKL directly cultured with fibroblasts or medium conditioned by fibroblasts. Direct co-culture with osteo-differentiated BMSCs caused BOKL aggregation while proliferation was not affected by co-culture. To more specifically associate RANKL expression to osteogenic differentiation degree of BMSCs, we determined their osteogenic markers expression and matrix calcification relative to osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Conclusions: In conclusion, our co-culture model allowed to demonstrate for the first time that direct contact but not paracrine interactions between human metastatic breast cancer cells and bone cells has a significant effect on RANKL/OPG expression in bone metastatic cells. Furthermore, only direct contact with the bone microenvironment induced BOKL clustering without however significantly influencing their proliferation and migration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number238
JournalMolecular Cancer
Volume13
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 21 2014

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Coculture Techniques
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Breast Neoplasms
Neoplasm Metastasis
Bone and Bones
Fibroblasts
Conditioned Culture Medium
Bone Neoplasms
Osteoblasts
Cluster Analysis
Tissue Donors

Keywords

  • Bone metastasis
  • Gene expression analyses
  • Heterotypic cell contacts
  • In vitro co-cultures
  • RANKL pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Oncology

Cite this

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title = "Direct but not indirect co-culture with osteogenically differentiated human bone marrow stromal cells increases RANKL/OPG ratio in human breast cancer cells generating bone metastases",
abstract = "Background: Bone metastases arise in nearly 70{\%} of patients with advanced breast cancer, but the complex metastatic process has not been completely clarified yet. RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway modifications and the crosstalk between metastatic cells and bone have been indicated as potential drivers of the process. Interactions between tumor and bone cells have been studied in vivo and in vitro, but specific effects of the direct contact between human metastatic cells and human bone cells on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway have not been investigated. Findings: We directly co-cultured bone metastatic human breast cancer cells (BOKL) with osteo-differentiated human mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) from 3 different donors. BMSCs and BOKL were then enzymatically separated and FACS sorted. We found a significant increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio as compared to control, which was not observed in BOKL cultured in medium conditioned by BMSCs, neither in BOKL directly cultured with fibroblasts or medium conditioned by fibroblasts. Direct co-culture with osteo-differentiated BMSCs caused BOKL aggregation while proliferation was not affected by co-culture. To more specifically associate RANKL expression to osteogenic differentiation degree of BMSCs, we determined their osteogenic markers expression and matrix calcification relative to osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Conclusions: In conclusion, our co-culture model allowed to demonstrate for the first time that direct contact but not paracrine interactions between human metastatic breast cancer cells and bone cells has a significant effect on RANKL/OPG expression in bone metastatic cells. Furthermore, only direct contact with the bone microenvironment induced BOKL clustering without however significantly influencing their proliferation and migration.",
keywords = "Bone metastasis, Gene expression analyses, Heterotypic cell contacts, In vitro co-cultures, RANKL pathway",
author = "Chiara Arrigoni and {De Luca}, Paola and Mara Gilardi and Sara Previdi and Massimo Broggini and Matteo Moretti",
year = "2014",
month = "10",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/1476-4598-13-238",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct but not indirect co-culture with osteogenically differentiated human bone marrow stromal cells increases RANKL/OPG ratio in human breast cancer cells generating bone metastases

AU - Arrigoni, Chiara

AU - De Luca, Paola

AU - Gilardi, Mara

AU - Previdi, Sara

AU - Broggini, Massimo

AU - Moretti, Matteo

PY - 2014/10/21

Y1 - 2014/10/21

N2 - Background: Bone metastases arise in nearly 70% of patients with advanced breast cancer, but the complex metastatic process has not been completely clarified yet. RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway modifications and the crosstalk between metastatic cells and bone have been indicated as potential drivers of the process. Interactions between tumor and bone cells have been studied in vivo and in vitro, but specific effects of the direct contact between human metastatic cells and human bone cells on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway have not been investigated. Findings: We directly co-cultured bone metastatic human breast cancer cells (BOKL) with osteo-differentiated human mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) from 3 different donors. BMSCs and BOKL were then enzymatically separated and FACS sorted. We found a significant increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio as compared to control, which was not observed in BOKL cultured in medium conditioned by BMSCs, neither in BOKL directly cultured with fibroblasts or medium conditioned by fibroblasts. Direct co-culture with osteo-differentiated BMSCs caused BOKL aggregation while proliferation was not affected by co-culture. To more specifically associate RANKL expression to osteogenic differentiation degree of BMSCs, we determined their osteogenic markers expression and matrix calcification relative to osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Conclusions: In conclusion, our co-culture model allowed to demonstrate for the first time that direct contact but not paracrine interactions between human metastatic breast cancer cells and bone cells has a significant effect on RANKL/OPG expression in bone metastatic cells. Furthermore, only direct contact with the bone microenvironment induced BOKL clustering without however significantly influencing their proliferation and migration.

AB - Background: Bone metastases arise in nearly 70% of patients with advanced breast cancer, but the complex metastatic process has not been completely clarified yet. RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway modifications and the crosstalk between metastatic cells and bone have been indicated as potential drivers of the process. Interactions between tumor and bone cells have been studied in vivo and in vitro, but specific effects of the direct contact between human metastatic cells and human bone cells on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway have not been investigated. Findings: We directly co-cultured bone metastatic human breast cancer cells (BOKL) with osteo-differentiated human mesenchymal cells (BMSCs) from 3 different donors. BMSCs and BOKL were then enzymatically separated and FACS sorted. We found a significant increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio as compared to control, which was not observed in BOKL cultured in medium conditioned by BMSCs, neither in BOKL directly cultured with fibroblasts or medium conditioned by fibroblasts. Direct co-culture with osteo-differentiated BMSCs caused BOKL aggregation while proliferation was not affected by co-culture. To more specifically associate RANKL expression to osteogenic differentiation degree of BMSCs, we determined their osteogenic markers expression and matrix calcification relative to osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Conclusions: In conclusion, our co-culture model allowed to demonstrate for the first time that direct contact but not paracrine interactions between human metastatic breast cancer cells and bone cells has a significant effect on RANKL/OPG expression in bone metastatic cells. Furthermore, only direct contact with the bone microenvironment induced BOKL clustering without however significantly influencing their proliferation and migration.

KW - Bone metastasis

KW - Gene expression analyses

KW - Heterotypic cell contacts

KW - In vitro co-cultures

KW - RANKL pathway

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