Is directionality of electroencephalographic (EEG) synchronization abnormal in amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD)? And, do cerebrovascular and AD lesions represent additive factors in the development of MCI as a putative preclinical stage of AD? Here we reported two studies that tested these hypotheses. EEG data were recorded in normal elderly (Nold), amnesic MCI, and mild AD subjects at rest condition (closed eyes). Direction of information flow within EEG electrode pairs was performed by directed transfer function (DTF) at δ(24Hz), θ(48Hz), α1 (8-10Hz), α2 (10-12Hz), β1 (13-20Hz), β2 (20-30Hz), and (30-40Hz). Parieto-to-frontal direction was stronger in Nold than in MCI and/or AD subjects for and rhythms. In contrast, the directional flow within interhemispheric EEG functional coupling did not discriminate among the groups. More interestingly, this coupling was higher at θ, α1, β2, and β1 in MCI with higher than in MCI with lower vascular load. These results suggest that directionality of parieto-to-frontal EEG synchronization is abnormal not only in AD but also in amnesic MCI, supporting the additive model according to which MCI state would result from the combination of cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative lesions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Behavioral Neuroscience
- Cognitive Neuroscience
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience