A multicenter open, randomized, controlled trial was conducted to determine whether primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be discontinued in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) whose CD4+ T cell counts have increased to >200 cells/mm3 (and who have remained at this level for at least 3 months) as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Patients were randomized to either the discontinuation arm (i.e., those who discontinued prophylaxis; n = 355) or to the continuation arm (n = 353); the 2 arms of the study were similar in terms of demographic, clinical, and immunovirologic characteristics. During the median follow-ups of 6.4 months- (discontinuation arm) and 6.1 months (continuation arm) and with a total of 419 patient-years, no patient developed P. carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmic encephalitis. The results of this study strongly indicate that primary prophylaxis for P. carinii pneumonia and toxoplasmic encephalitis can be safely discontinued in patients whose CD4+ T cell counts increase to >200 cells/mm3 during HAART.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health