Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1471-1479
Number of pages9
JournalDrug Design, Development and Therapy
Volume7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 6 2013

Fingerprint

Alzheimer Disease
Memantine
Cholinesterase Inhibitors
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Amyloid beta-Peptides
tau Proteins
Neurofibrillary Tangles
Aptitude
Passive Immunization
Amyloid Plaques
Memory Disorders
N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors
Short-Term Memory
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Dementia
Vaccination
Communication
Pathology
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Diagnosis
  • Disease-modifying drugs
  • Memantine
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease. / Ghezzi, Laura; Scarpini, Elio; Galimberti, Daniela.

In: Drug Design, Development and Therapy, Vol. 7, 06.12.2013, p. 1471-1479.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{455a82d6a1114cd194cdb383dea02e43,
title = "Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease",
abstract = "Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition.",
keywords = "Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, Alzheimer's disease, Diagnosis, Disease-modifying drugs, Memantine, Treatment",
author = "Laura Ghezzi and Elio Scarpini and Daniela Galimberti",
year = "2013",
month = "12",
day = "6",
doi = "10.2147/DDDT.S41431",
language = "English",
volume = "7",
pages = "1471--1479",
journal = "Drug Design, Development and Therapy",
issn = "1177-8881",
publisher = "Dove Medical Press Ltd.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Disease-modifying drugs in Alzheimer's disease

AU - Ghezzi, Laura

AU - Scarpini, Elio

AU - Galimberti, Daniela

PY - 2013/12/6

Y1 - 2013/12/6

N2 - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition.

AB - Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. The early stages of AD are characterized by short-term memory loss. Once the disease progresses, patients experience difficulties in sense of direction, oral communication, calculation, ability to learn, and cognitive thinking. The median duration of the disease is 10 years. The pathology is characterized by deposition of amyloid beta peptide (so-called senile plaques) and tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles. Currently, two classes of drugs are licensed by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of AD, ie, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for mild to moderate AD, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, for moderate and severe AD. Treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine aims at slowing progression and controlling symptoms, whereas drugs under development are intended to modify the pathologic steps leading to AD. Herein, we review the clinical features, pharmacologic properties, and cost-effectiveness of the available acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, and focus on disease-modifying drugs aiming to interfere with the amyloid beta peptide, including vaccination, passive immunization, and tau deposition.

KW - Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors

KW - Alzheimer's disease

KW - Diagnosis

KW - Disease-modifying drugs

KW - Memantine

KW - Treatment

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84889578354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84889578354&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2147/DDDT.S41431

DO - 10.2147/DDDT.S41431

M3 - Article

C2 - 24353405

AN - SCOPUS:84889578354

VL - 7

SP - 1471

EP - 1479

JO - Drug Design, Development and Therapy

JF - Drug Design, Development and Therapy

SN - 1177-8881

ER -